Tag Archives: biofuel

coal plant

Stabilize greenhouse gasses

There are numerous ways that we can stabilize greenhouse gasses, thereby “stopping” climate change. Governments of 1st world and even developing nations must implement some of the following policies (and most might, at least implement some of the following, especially after the upcoming COP meeting of the UNFCCC in Paris). Clearly, the path to stabilize GHG emissions includes making it a priority for governments to financially invest in at least some of these solutions:

 

1. A carbon tax, or carbon cap-and-trade system, or both

2. Further investment in, and development of all forms of renewable energy including: wind, solar, geothermal and biomass/biofuel etc…

3. Carbon capture and storage

4. Widespread adoption of hybrids, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles, as well as sustainable mass transportation using biofuel or electricity (bus systems, light rail etc…)

5. More use of, and development of smart grid infrastructure – smart meters, home energy management systems etc…

6. Energy, especially renewable energy, storage

 

 

This is certainly an incomplete list, so please feel free to add points.

Cellulosic biofuel

Cellulosic biofuel – one fuel option

Ethanol is traditionally made from food crops like corn and sugarcane, but it can also be made from cellulosic feedstocks, non-food crops or inedible waste products. Examples of sources for cellulosic biofuel are crop residues, Miscanthus, switch grass, paper pulp, packaging, cardboard, sawdust, wood chips, rice hulls, corn stover and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance.

Technically, almost all plants have the lingocelluloses needed to produce ethanol from cellulosic material. Once glucose is freed from the cellulose using enzymes, fermentation produces ethanol, similar to how ethanol is traditionally produced from 1st generation biofuel sources. Lignin is also produced in the process, which can be burned as a carbon-neutral fuel for local processing plants, businesses and perhaps even homes.

There are tons of cellulose containing raw materials that could be used to produce ethanol that are simply thrown away each year in the U.S. alone. Examples of this are over 100 million dry tons of urban wood wastes and forest residues and over 150 million dry tons of corn stover and wheat straw. That material plus just a fraction of the other paper, wood and plant products that could be used to create ethanol instead of garbage would be enough to make the U.S. independent of foreign oil. This theme is true in other parts of the world as well.

Financial concerns stop cellulosic biofuel from really taking off and providing a consistent source of fuel. This type of ethanol production involves an additional step, the breakdown of the raw material into glucose with enzymes, which translates into a higher cost. However, the raw material is abundant, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from cellulosic biofuel can be up to 90% compared to fossil fuel petroleum, significantly greater than those obtained from traditional 1st generation biofuels. Cellulosic raw material can be easily grown in land marginal for actual agriculture or simply be diverted from landfills, in order to make the production of cellulosic biofuel more cost-effective. Cost-effective processes, such as using inexpensive enzymes to break down the cellulose, are being researched and developed as well.

From: http://www.greencitytimes.com

algae farm

Algae Farms – the Future of Biofuel

Most biofuel in the world today is sourced from 1st generation crops like corn, sugarcane, soybean or other crops from traditional sources. In reality, most current biofuel sources are inadequate to meet rising global demands. In addition, much of current biofuel is derived from food products, needed to address hunger from the global food crisis.

One solution to producing biofuel, especially ethanol, without using crops that are usually designated as food, is to use algae. Algae, especially microalgae, production is becoming more and more economically feasible. This is because of its exceptionally rapid growth rate. Algae grow 20–30 times faster than many food crops, contain up to 30 times more fuel potential (in the form of oil) than soybean or even palm oil, and algae farms can be located anywhere.

One great feature of algae that makes it ideal for biofuel production is that up to 60% of its mass is oil. Another is that algae requires CO2 to grow, so it essentially sequesters CO2 from the atmosphere as it grows. Algae reproduce quickly, needing only sunlight and water, are non-toxic and biodegradable. As algae grows, the oil is harvested for fuel while the remaining green mass by-product can be used in fish and oyster farms.

 

Algaculture has proven, based on current algae production technologies, that it can provide future global energy needs while being economically viable and sustainable. Algae production also creates useful co-products, such as bio-fertilizers. If the production of these products is made part of the goal of algae farms, biofuel production from algae will become more economically competitive sooner. Algae offers a great source for a more sustainable transportation fuel, but also offers a range of other benefits and co-products, such as carbon sequestration and fertilizer.

From: http://www.greencitytimes.com