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Energy Efficiency Sustainability News

The Role of E-mobility Trends in Decarbonizing Transport

Decarbonizing the Transportation Sector with E-mobility |

It’s no secret that transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, according to the Environmental Protection Agency, transportation accounted for 27% of all U.S. emissions in 2020. The good news is that there are a number of trends that are helping to decarbonize the transportation sector. One of the most promising is the rise of electric vehicles and other e-mobility options, like electric bikes and scooters.

Here, we take a look at what e-mobility actually means, and why, along with cycling, it can help us move towards decarbonizing transport and thus reducing our carbon footprint.

What is e-mobility?

E-mobility is a term that describes the use of electronic devices and systems to power vehicles. This includes everything from electric cars, e-bikes, and electric scooters to electric buses and trains. These trends are helping to decarbonize transportation, and they’re only going to increase.

The benefits of e-mobility include reduced emissions, lower running costs, and improved energy efficiency. E-mobility is seen as a cleaner, more efficient alternative to traditional petrol and diesel-powered vehicles. As the world looks for ways to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels, e-mobility is expected to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector.

What’s so good about e-mobility?

Electric cars are much more energy-efficient than motorised vehicles, so you can feel good about reducing your carbon footprint, as they use less energy. 100%-EVs are the more environmentally friendly choice as they themselves produce zero emissions (depending on the power source that powers the grid where the EV is charged, the EV can be entirely zero-emission if the grid is powered by renewable energy). They’re also much cheaper to operate since you’ll only need to charge the battery rather than buying gas or oil. 


For more on electric vehicles, please see:

Benefits of Plug-in Hybrids and Electric Vehicles


Free photos of ElectricalIn addition to electric vehicles, electric bikes have become an emerging popular trend in e-mobility.  Cycling is an efficient and low-emission way to travel, and it’s becoming more popular all over the world, as both a hobby and a way to get to work in a speedy and eco-friendly way.

However, many people are now seeking out even better alternatives to allow them to get around without having to use quite as much effort. As a result, electric bike options are also becoming more popular. Cyclists and businesses are investing in e-bikes and also in quality storage solutions to keep these valuable methods of transportation safe.

Electric bikes free up the road for other road users and are often faster in city traffic. This reduces the number of petrol cars sitting in traffic generating harmful emissions. To take this even further, this guide estimates that an e-bike generates around 134kg of CO2e during the manufacturing process. This is significantly smaller than the carbon footprint of manufacturing a car, which comes in around 5.5 tonnes of CO2 at a minimum.

How can you get the most out of your e-options?

To improve the eco-credentials of your e-bike or electric vehicle, make sure to get yourself on a renewable energy tariff, or generate your own renewable energy. This way, you can be assured that you’re reducing the overall carbon footprint of your transport even further.

To sum up

Electric vehicles, electric bikes, and other e-mobility methods are important trends to watch as we work towards decarbonizing transport. They offer a number of benefits for individuals, cities, and the environment. We hope that this article has given you a better understanding of these two modes of transportation and their role in our sustainable future.


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All Posts GCT featured articles Green City Times green city Sustainability News

10 Sustainable Technologies Improving Air Quality in Cities

GREEN Tech for Healthy Air


10 Technologies Improving Air Quality in Cities

Article by Jane Marsh 

Cities are the heart of every global region. They house generations of families, are often headquarters for the world’s biggest companies, and provide universities that produce the most innovative minds. It’s no wonder why so many people throughout the world want to live in a city.

However, an increase in residents also creates additional air pollution that harms everyone’s health. These are some of the technologies improving air quality in cities to make them better places to live and work.


1. Electric Vehicles (EVs)

Many people sell their cars when they move to a populated downtown area, but everyone will still require some kind of vehicle for transportation.

Whether you take a conventionally-fueled (fossil fuel-based) bus or drive yourself around the city in a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE), the transportation method will burn gas and create carbon dioxide (CO2) that intensifies global warming. ICE vehicles also create many forms of pollution that adversely affect public health and the environment.

The number of EV models will double in 2022 and continue rising in 2023. More people will have access to vehicles with electric motors that eliminate tailpipe emissions and therefore tailpipe pollution, and which prevent CO2 from entering the planet’s atmosphere.

2. Vehicles Designed for Hydrogen Fuel

In addition to electric cars, engineers, scientists, and vehicle manufacturers are also developing vehicle motors powered by hydrogen gas. Hydrogen doesn’t create carbon dioxide or harmful emissions when burned, so it would be a 100% clean energy alternative. The U.S. Department of Energy is leading research to make FCEVs safe, affordable, environmentally-friendly vehicle options. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) produce no tailpipe emissions (other than water vapor), and FCEVs are more efficient than conventional ICE vehicles. 

3. Rentable Electric Bikes

Bicycles are another alternative sustainable technology for transportation purposes. Many cities pave their roads with bike lanes included, and some cities even rent out e-bikes and other electric micro-mobility devices (e-scooters, e-skateboards, etc…) to increase sustainable transit options.

Publicly available or rentable bikes will get people across the few blocks they need to travel without burning fossil fuels. It’s a pollution-free form of transportation that immediately makes the surrounding air safer to breathe.

4. Personalized HVAC Systems

Urban airborne pollution also involves everyone’s homes. Every ounce of air in your home can contain up to 40,000 dust mites or more if the house isn’t clean.

It’s so important to tailor your HVAC unit to your household because some families breathe more air pollutants than others. Getting professional advice will point you toward the most suitable air filters and a cleaning schedule that will make your system last longer.

5. Construction Site Filtration Machines

Research shows that 23% of urban air pollution originates from ongoing construction projects. This is an especially pressing concern in cities because there’s always ongoing construction.

Massive filtration machines at technologically advanced sites pull air through filters during the workday and push out clean air for workers to breathe. They removes dust and other contaminants that people might breathe while working on the site or walking past.

6. Air Quality Sensors

Sometimes city air is safer to breathe than others, so people can check websites or apps to see the current pollution level where they live. Numerous cities installed air sensors to provide accurate instant readings.

Chicago installed their sensors on lampposts in 2014 to track four common pollutants like carbon dioxide and particulate matter. The chips will upgrade to add volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when the technology is available. The ability to upgrade without reinstalling new technologies is one of the many benefits of using emerging tech to improve air quality in cities.

7. Wet Deposition Sprinklers

When it rains or snows over a big city, the water particles capture air pollutants and chemicals before bringing them down to earth. Longer periods of rain in one place capture more pollution, but rain systems have varying lengths and move through regions quickly.

Wet deposition sprinklers recreate this helpful process by operating as long as people need. They’re especially helpful in areas with high amounts of airborne pollution.

8. Biomass Household Stoves

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 2.6 billion people cook with kerosene, which puts them at risk of inhaling fatal gases. It’s most common in developing countries, but biomass fuel is an easily accessible alternative. It contains naturally degradable compounds like wood, farming waste, and animal dung. People can access all three components where they live and make the fuel at home.

There is a concern for anyone using biomass stoves long-term. Although the fuel doesn’t create carbon monoxide, it can release carbon dioxide fumes that are poisonous in spaces that lack ventilation. Air cleaning technologies will continue to develop and meet people where they live in these regions.

9. Pollution-Vacuuming Pods

Cities with massive highway infrastructure put more focus on airborne pollutants created by vehicles. Many have set up pollution-vacuuming pods that sit under each road in response to that. Pipework connects the pod to the upper street and sucks in air to remove ozone, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide.

It’s another new technology that makes city air safer to breathe, especially for pedestrians walking along high-traffic streets.

10. Self-Cleaning Structural Concrete

Concrete buildings are fire-proof and withstand extreme weather, so they’re an optimal urban construction solution. They’re an even better choice when construction teams use self-cleaning concrete to cover the outer walls and roof. It uses photocatalysis to break down pollutants with sunlight redirected off the concrete.

Because this technology can also create urban necessities like parking decks and sidewalks, it’s a widespread pollution solution.


Urban leadership and residents should adopt technologies that improve air quality in cities, such as sustainable transit alternatives and household upgrades. Sustainable technologies make a significant difference in reducing airborne pollutants that harm city residents and the planet.



Author bio:

Jane works as an environmental and energy writer. She is also the founder and editor-in-chief of

Environment.co


Central Park, New York City

Additional “technologies” that vastly improve urban air quality are the ancient “technologies” of planting trees and maintaining green spaces – as described in the Green Urban Planning article on GCT. Here’s an excerpt from the Green City Times’ Urban Planning article:

“Urban roads should feature natural landscapes nearby; thus increasing the positive environmental influence of nature on public healthTrees and green spaces serve to create healthier air by filtering urban pollutants, in addition to providing aesthetic value and numerous other benefits. Planting trees and other greenery in cities also cool urban environments (as well as other smart urban growth solutions like green and cool roofs), helping to reduce the heat island effect in cities.” from –  greencitytimes.com/urban-planning


 

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Oslo, Norway – Europe’s Eco-capital

Eco-capital of Europe


Oslo: Net Zero Future

Oslo, Norway

Oslo has fleets of green mass public transit – trams, electric buses, and ferries – that are powered by electricity from a municipal grid fed mostly by renewable power with a majority of that electricity from hydropower – but also from biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind energy (along with a share of fossil fuels). Some of Norway’s fleets of buses and ferries run directly on renewables. Oslo not only sources electricity for public mass transit from renewable energy when possible but uses RE sources to provide electricity for every other sector of the city’s economy as well.

For heating buildings within the city, Oslo primarily relies on district heating from municipal waste incinerators (waste to energy, or W2E), as well as biomass-fed cogeneration plants. Biomass-fueled boilers also heat many of the city’s homes and buildings, in addition to supplying Oslo with a renewable source of electricity.

Oslo has a goal of a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) of 95% by 2030 (compared to 1990 levels). Additionally, Norway is striving to become a carbon neutral nation (net zero emissions). 2030 is the target year that the Norwegian parliament has set to reach carbon neutrality for the country. The capital city of Oslo is leading Norway down the green path to a net zero GHG emissions future.

Oslo has the most electric vehicles per capita of any major city in the world; and the majority of new car sales in Oslo are hybrids, plug-in electric vehicles (EVs), or 100% EVs. Over half of new car sales are EVs; and when hybrids are added in, internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles account for only ~15% of new vehicle sales in Oslo.


Tackling pollution from cars head-on

The Norwegian government already offers aggressive incentives for drivers to buy electric cars. These incentives include eliminating sales tax nationally for the purchase of some EVs, developing free parking spaces for EVs in major cities like Oslo, as well as building free parking garages for EVs with charging stations in Oslo. Meanwhile, ICE vehicles are still taxed, providing a disincentive for ICE vehicles, while tax-free EVs are incentivized. Norway plans to only allow zero-emission new cars to be registered in the country (starting 2025, at the soonest).



Oslo, Norway is Europe’s eco-capital for 2019- 

“Nearly half of all new cars sold here [Oslo] are fully electric. [Today, the share of new car sales that are EVs is well over half]. There are trams, electric buses and ferries, all running on renewable hydroelectric power. During the icy winters, a waste incinerator plant heats many of the city’s homes.

The city aims to cut emissions by 36 percent from 1990 levels by the end of next year, and 95 percent by 2030. To achieve this, the city council has introduced its own climate budget — possibly the first of its kind in the world.”   FROM-  dw.com/en/oslo-starts-2019-as-europes-eco-capital

“The award [Europe’s eco-capital award] honors high environmental standards, sustainable urban development and green job creation.

Indicators for being a green city include local transport, biodiversity, air quality, waste management, and noise [reduction]. Oslo, with its 660,000 inhabitants, is green not only due to its low carbon footprint of 1.9 tons per capita per year, Katja Rosenbohm tells DW. As head of communication at the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Rosenbohm was part of the jury that awarded Oslo its new title. “They have very ambitious targets, for example of having a car-free city by 2050.” Rosenbohm also praises Oslo’s “front-running activities in electro-mobility.”   FROM-  dw.com/en/oslo-is-europes-green-capital-2019-finally



The 2019 European Green Capital is Oslo

Since 2010, an annual European Green City Capital has been awarded to European cities with a population over 100,000 (the population of Oslo is about 660,000 and was the 2019 European green capital), in recognition of high environmental standards, sustainable urban development, and green job creation. Additional considerations for this award include public mass transit, conservation, biodiversity, air quality, waste management, and implementing measures to achieve a low citywide carbon footprint.

Oslo has also created its own Sustainable Cities Program. Oslo has ambitious emission reduction goals. Here’s a snippet from DW on why Oslo is Europe’s 2019 eco-capital – 

Oslo starts 2019 as Europe’s eco-capital

The Norwegian capital plans to cut emissions by 95 percent by 2030, despite being one of Europe’s fastest growing cities. As European Green Capital 2019, it hopes to set an example for others.    

Oslo’s waterfront was once a mass of shipping containers and a vast intersection jammed with cars pumping out fumes. Today, traffic is diverted through an underwater tunnel, and much of it is made up of electric or hybrid cars. The new development has impressive environmental as well as cultural credentials, with all new buildings meeting energy efficiency standards for low energy use, explains Anita Lindahl Trosdahl, project manager for Oslo’s Green Capital year.
“We’re using our market power to introduce fossil fuel-free construction,” Trosdahl told DW. “So not only will the build in its lifetime be as sustainable as possible, but also during the construction period itself.”           FROM- dw.com/en/oslo-is-europes-green-capital-2019-finally

Read more from dw: Could oil nation Norway help save the climate?


 

carbon farming carbon footprint carbon neutral carbon neutrality carbon pricing carbon tax clean energy Clean Power Plan climate change climate solutions cogeneration Conference of the Parties cover crops e-bikes electric vehicles energy energy efficiency energy star Freiburg global warming green building greenhouse gas emissions hydrogen hydrogen fuel cells Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LEED nationally determined contributions net zero greenhouse gas emissions nuclear energy Paris Climate Accord recycling renewable energy reverse osmosis smart grid smart meter solar sources of renewable energy sustainability sustainable agriculture sustainable mass transit United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change urban planning waste-to-energy waste management zero-waste

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The future generation of batteries

What are future generation of batteries going to be?


Advanced li-ion batteries

Next-generation lithium-ion (li-ion) batteries are being developed, and varieties are already currently in the marketplace. These next-gen li-ion batteries have 2-7X the efficiency of current batteries, often while reducing costs. New varieties of advanced li-ion batteries maintain a stable capacity for 20+ years. Next-gen li-ion batteries can charge in minutes, are rechargeable, have a higher capacity, and are more cost-efficient than previous battery generations.

The most common type of high capacity, widely used, advanced batteries being developed today are li-ion batteries made in combination with other metals. Developing advanced batteries ends up creating a unique battery technology (like li-ion cobalt oxide, which is frequently used today in portable devices – cell phones, laptops, etc…).

[Another metal commonly used in batteries for a wide variety of products and electric vehicles (EVs), and often combined with other metals and elements – is nickel. “Nickel (Ni) has long been widely used in batteries, most commonly in nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and in the longer-lasting nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries…”.]


Next-gen battery technologies

Here are a few other examples of advanced li-ion next-gen battery technologies currently in the market (but less widely commercially available than li-ion cobalt varieties. (Here is a YouTube video on li-iron phosphate batteries, also known as LFP batteries). Lithium-iron-phosphate batteries are currently a popular battery solution for some stationary battery applications. Other advanced battery technologies currently in development include:

All of these promising, best-in-class batteries based on advanced li-ion chemistry are more efficient than the products of previous li-ion battery generations; and are also lighter, longer-lasting, often still rechargeable while also developed to charge quickly; and have a higher energy capacity.

These cutting-edge li-ion batteries based on the latest battery chemistries are emerging into the mass marketplace; as they transition from R&D, beta-testing, and demonstration phases. Advanced next-gen li-ion batteries could revolutionize battery technology for:

  • smartphones, computers, tablets
  • EVs
  • grid energy storage
  • commercial/ municipal buildings
  • RVs, boats
  • aerospace applications, other industrial applications, and much more.

Battery recycling

The next step in ensuring that future generations of li-ion batteries are actually a sustainable solution is a concerted effort by battery manufacturers to develop batteries with future recycling options built-in the battery design. Here’s a snippet from C&EN about the importance of having future recycling requirements in mind as a priority for battery manufacturers:

Lithium-ion batteries have made portable electronics ubiquitous, and they are about to do the same for electric vehicles. That success story is setting the world on track to generate a multimillion-metric-ton heap of used Li-ion batteries that could end up in the trash. The batteries are valuable and recyclable, but because of technical, economic, and other factors, less than 5% are recycled today.

The enormousness of the impending spent-battery situation is driving researchers to search for cost-effective, environmentally sustainable strategies for dealing with the vast stockpile of Li-ion batteries looming on the horizon.   FROM –  cen.acs.org/materials/energy-storage/time-serious-recycling-lithium


Cobalt controversy

One glaring issue with li-ion batteries is the lack of sustainability in sourcing the critical rare earth metals used in li-ion batteries. Especially problematic is cobalt sourced from Congo (cobalt is frequently found in batteries in smartphones, portable computers, and EVs).

Cobalt sourced from Congo (which supplies roughly 2/3 of the world’s cobalt), and then used in li-ion cobalt oxide batteries (as well as other batteries – for issues such as battery durability and the like) are unsustainably and unethically sourced. Cobalt from Congo is the product of cobalt mining rife with human rights abuses (child labor, labor for insufficient wages, labor in hazardous, unregulated conditions), unmitigated environmental and social injustices, and other unsustainable practices.

Cobalt is found in many varieties of li-ion batteries, and even nickel-based batteries, and other batteries that use a combination of metals and elements. However, there are batteries with no cobalt or other unsustainable rare earth metals (such as those promising battery types mentioned above in this article). There are manufacturers producing li-ion cobalt-free batteries, as well as many battery manufacturers committed to using cobalt that is not sourced from Congo; but rather other parts of the world that do not have human rights abuses in cobalt mining.

Since child and slave labor have been repeatedly reported in cobalt mining, primarily in the artisanal mines of DR Congo, technology companies seeking an ethical supply chain have faced shortages of this raw material and the price of cobalt metal reached a nine-year high in October 2017, more than US$30 a pound, versus US$10 in late 2015. After oversupply, the price dropped to a more normal $15 in 2019. As a reaction to the issues with artisanal cobalt mining in DR Congo a number of cobalt suppliers and their customers have formed the Fair Cobalt Alliance (FCA) which aims to end the use of child labor and to improve the working conditions of cobalt mining and processing in the DR Congo.

Members of another ethical cobalt mining organization, the Responsible Cobalt Initiative, include FairphoneGlencore, and Tesla, Inc. Research is being conducted by the European Union on the possibility to eliminate cobalt requirements in lithium-ion battery production. As of August 2020 battery makers have gradually reduced the cathode cobalt content from 1/3, to 2/10, to currently 1/10, and have also introduced the cobalt free LFP cathode into the battery packs of electric cars such as the Tesla Model 3. In September 2020, Tesla outlined their plans to make their own, cobalt-free battery cells.FROM  –    wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt#Batteries


Summation of Current Advanced Battery Technologies

Widely commercially available advanced li-ion batteries (such as li-ion cobalt oxide, or the promising LFP batteries gaining popularity for home energy storage and EVs) remain the most prominent high capacity batteries widely available in today’s market. These advanced batteries are produced for smartphones, laptops, EVs; as well as small-scale (residential/ commercial building), and large-scale (grid, industrial) energy storage.

However, sodium-ion batteriesgraphene-based batteries, and zinc-air batteries represent cheaper, more abundant, more environmentally-friendly material than lithium; that could produce a less expensive battery with possibilities for long-term energy storage and applications for a wide range of products – if R&D in these technologies yields batteries that can be widely commercially marketed.

Lithium-vanadium phosphate batteries are a next-generation battery solution that shows promise; as they can extend the range of EVs, for example. These batteries potentially have greater power than advanced batteries found in many EVs today, but also greater safety than the batteries found in smartphones and laptops.

In addition, recharging lithium-vanadium batteries could be faster than batteries currently used in EVs and computers. Other promising advanced next-gen battery types with varying degrees of research and development, and at different levels of marketability, include various types of flow batteries.


Flow batteries

Flow batteries, such as vanadium flow and zinc-iron redox flow, have a longer battery life than conventional li-ion batteries. Flow batteries have a battery life of over 20 years, quickly charge and discharge; and easily scale up from under 1 MW to over 10 MW. Vanadium flow batteries represent high capacity energy storage, can be idle when solar and wind aren’t producing, and then discharge instantly. They have the unique ability to charge and discharge simultaneously and to release large amounts of electricity quickly.

As they are inexpensive to scale up, vanadium flow batteries represent an opportunity for reliable, affordable large-scale energy storage. At this point, many types of flow batteries are still in the R&D phase due to the expense of manufacturing these batteries; with only limited commercial availability. However, commercial deployment of flow batteries is seen in some areas worldwide today, including some large markets – such as throughout Australia and Asia.

Unlike vanadium flow batteries, which currently represent a great, realistic battery alternative, lithium-air batteries only theoretically represent a great battery alternative. Lithium-air batteries could triple the range of EVs; and could give fully charged EVs the same range as maximum range gasoline cars with a full tank. However, whereas vanadium flow batteries can charge and discharge repetitively with no problem, it has been notoriously difficult to manufacture rechargeable varieties of lithium-air batteries.



New, promising batteries are currently being manufactured with everything from:

  • li-ion + cobalt, phosphate, manganese, silicon
  • combining these elements, along with nickel – for lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides, or NMCs as these batteries are known)
  • batteries based on vanadium, zinc, sodium, or even graphene.

Advanced R&D is being done on “superconductors“, flow batteries, solid-state batteries, and various metal or air-flow type batteries. Additionally, there are experimental combinations such as lithium-sulfur, lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt, and lithium-titanate oxide. New advanced next-gen batteries are quickly gaining ground both in terms of R&D, as well as deployment. Advancements in next-gen batteries will help add renewable energy storage to the grid, add charging capacity to our cell phones and laptops, and help extend the range of electric cars to compete with gasoline ones.



Please also see:

renewable energy storage


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10 Countries Promoting the use of EVs

Global EV BOOM


Why Is There A Need For EVs Globally?

In its World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency identifies pathways for clean energy technological solutions needed to reach global carbon neutrality (i.e. net zero GHG emissions) by 2050. It also details interim goals that will ensure the world is on the path to carbon neutrality. In order to achieve these goals, global electric vehicle sales need to increase from <3% of new vehicle sales to 50% by 2030.

Increased awareness of fossil fuels’ effect on the planet, and the universal imperative for all nations across the planet to act on climate NOW to reduce GHGs, have driven many countries around the world to implement policies encouraging electric and hybrid vehicles. The sales of electric vehicles (EVs) have increased globally, with EVs, including 100% EVs and plug-in hybrid EVs; and now account for over 2.5 million vehicles annually

Over 90 million vehicles (internal combustion engine {ICE} vehicles, EVs, and hybrids included) are manufactured worldwide each year. Globally,  China produces over 1 in 4 vehicles (of all the world’s vehicles and of all types) annually; and almost another 1/3 of vehicles in the world are manufactured in – the United States, Japan, Germany. The U.S. produces more than Japan, and Japan’s vehicle production is a bit higher than Germany. Other major vehicle-producing countries include India and Mexico, which combined with the U.S., Japan, and Germany, produce roughly another 1/3 of the world’s vehicles.

The remaining auto manufacturing representing the final ~1/3 of the global vehicle market is done in other countries, most significantly South Korea. Even with all of the above countries contributing to manufacturing EVs, EVs still only account for less than 5% of vehicle manufacturing globally (mostly in the form of electric and plug-in hybrid light-duty passenger cars and trucks). This number of EV production needs to increase in order for the world to meet global climate goals. 

The global reliance on the automobile results in a rapid increase in carbon dioxide emissions. Climate change has disrupted the entire atmospheric setting of the planet, causing global warming and extreme weather such as floods, increased seas levels, heat waves, droughts, hurricanes, and more storms; all of which in turn affect food production, human health, and our general well being. EVs and hybrids are a cost-effective, efficient way to fight climate change (while consumers get a superior product) – see The Benefits of Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, and Electric Vehicles.


 Ten Countries promoting Electric Cars and Hybrids  

written by Eseandre


Norway

Norway is first on our list because its government is in full support of cleaning the atmosphere and creating sustainable energy for its citizens; especially with regard to EVs. Norway has substantial tax incentives for EV buyers/ owners. Norway has built an extensive EV infrastructure, with ubiquitous, often free, EV charging; and Norway further incentivizes EVs with dedicated, free EV parking spots with charging included, as well as entire EV garages dedicated to these perks, and free use of bus/ carpool lanes for EVs. The entire country of Norway plans for carbon neutrality by 2030, and that new car sales should be entirely zero emission vehicles by 2025. The sales of EVs in Norway have gone up to over half of new vehicle sales (when plug-in hybrids are also considered). EV customers and owners in Norway enjoy incentives such as tax exemptions for EV purchases, free parking spots, and free charging – incentives aimed to get others interested and invested in the transition to an all-EV society.  Oslo, Norway is even considering a complete ban of fossil fuel-based vehicles from its city center.

France

Even with the yellow vest event just passing by, the sales of electric cars in France have gone up 111%. Paris is aiming to ban all cars except electric vehicles by 2030 in the city, and in the country, there will be a similar ban by 2040. In the bid to reduce GHGs and air pollution, Emmanuel Macron government has offered incentives in the cost of  EVs, and plans to increase charging ports to 100,000 by the year 2020. 

The UK

The UK has declared it will be fully electric car compliant by 2040, and the UK has also passed a nationwide law to ban traditional ICE car sales by 2030. Although the government is thriving hard to be a major force with the zero-emission ambitions for the country, and the congestion charge in London, the structure to sustain the use of EVs, and plug-in cars are still not in place, and the government needs to fix that for the program to be a success. However, the UK is home to some of the best brands of electric and plug-in cars.

China

China is the largest producer of fossil fuel vehicles globally, but with the country’s moves towards clean energy and sustainability, China is at the forefront of producing electric and hybrid cars, trucks, and buses. Sales of EVs in China climb higher as the need for clean energy and GHG reduction nationwide remain a priority. 

The USA

Sales of EVs and hybrid vehicles have increased in the United States by over 25% annually since 2016; with even greater increases seen in the U.S. EV market recently, in large part thanks to Tesla. When discussing EVs and America, one immediately thinks of Tesla, the auto manufacturer based in Palo Alto CA. Tesla is the #1 manufacturer of EVs worldwide. Tesla car sales have increased by 280% annually over the last year in the United States, and by over 138% worldwide, now claiming sales of around 250,000 cars worldwide annually, most of them in the United States.

Germany

Electric cars and hybrids have flooded the streets of Germany. Germany will have more than a million EVs on city streets in the country in a couple of years. Germany is known for its financial incentives for buyers of German EVs and hybrids, and over 30 makes of German EVs in the country.

Brazil

Brazil is second on our list, not just for a country that uses electric cars, but for being among the pioneers of pushing for renewable energy in all facet of its economy. As the Brazilian government implements the idea of EV, we are seeing more industrial and residential sectors combining to sell the impact of greenhouse gas and how we can change it. Since the gradual introduction of EVs in Brazil, the emission rate is reducing as both electric cars, and fuel cell vehicle is seen on the streets. The country also uses cleaner fuel alternatives such as ethanol blends and biomass. 

Please see our article on Curitiba for more on this city in Brazil, and Curitiba’s successful use of hybrid vehicles in sustainable mass transit systems.

The Netherlands

The Netherlands has set a target for itself that only emission-free vehicles will be allowed on the streets by 2030.The government of the Netherlands will subsidize the sales of electric vehicles beginning in 2021. EVs will be exempt from taxes on motor vehicles starting in 2025.  

India

With little clear government support for EVs, lack of charging infrastructure, and the higher cost of EVs compared to fossil fuel cars, India struggles in its drive for EVs. However, the success of EVs in India might be achieved in a different way; the introduction of the two-wheel electric scooters throughout India to combat the dense population of the country, and pollution. Hopefully, soon electric scooters will be affordable enough for the masses in India, in the aim to cut down on the GHGs in the country. 

Canada

The government of Canada is investing in green infrastructure and clean technologies including partnering with private and public bodies to attain the dream of a clean Canada. This drive toward sustainability has also pushed the need for zero-emission vehicles on Canadian roads, as well as the introduction of charging stations to accommodate the growing number. Although it has not attained the position of countries like Norway, China or even its neighbor the US, it is on the verge of being one of the countries with a higher renewable and sustainable energy in the future. 


The earth is our home, using renewable and creating a more sustainable form of energy is all we need to change the problems that currently plague us. Countries setting policies that help people make the sustainable transit transition; and the global population taking the initiative to adopt hybrid vehicles, plug-in EVS, and 100% EVs, is a significant help to the cause. (Other countries not on this list are notable for their production and incentivizing of use of EVs, most notably South Korea).

The demand for EVs globally is expected to rise sharply in coming decades, as illustrated in this chart – with stats from BNEF, BP, OPEC, Exxon, and the IEA –

Electric vehicle global demand forecast


Please also see:

The Benefits of Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, and Electric Vehicles


About the author – Eseandre is a passionate freelance writer, with over 2,000 positive reviews on Fiverr, who loves travelling and caring for the less privileged, and the earth. You can find her here- https://www.fiverr.com/eseandre 



 

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All Posts Green City Times green city Sustainability News

EVs to be the main car on the world’s roads

EVs are IN, ICE vehicles are OUT


EV mandates

In the near future, there will be laws implemented mandating sales of electric vehicles (EVs), and the phase-out of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, in many countries, states, and cities throughout the world. Unfortunately, current global roads and fuel infrastructure are built for petrol; ICE vehicles that have historically relied on gasoline.

However, EVs, plug-in EVs, and hybrids have made their way successfully into the global market. EVs have dropped in price with lithium ion batteries getting cheaper and more efficient. Globally, EVs have developed a considerable market share of vehicle sales in many countries. Now sales of EVs are mandated in many countries, with the implementation of these mandates right around the corner. However, there is still no complete infrastructure developed for the continual charging of EVs that will completely rely upon electricity in most countries.


Seventeen countries have taken varying types of action, from soft targets to strong commitments, to phase out Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles and increase the number of Electric Vehicles (EVs).  FROM: theclimatecenter.org/actions-by-countries-phase-out-gas


The EU wants to phase out gas car sales by 2035, and many other countries have announced similar plans. Norway plans to ban sales of gasoline vehicles by 2025 (currently 60% of new car sales are electric). Germany‘s upper house of legislature passed resolution to only approve emission-free cars for use on the roads by 2030. France plans to ban sales of gasoline vehicles by 2040. [full list below]

Amsterdam: no ICE vehicles will be allowed in city center after 2030.

Brussels: planning to largely ban gasoline powered vehicles from operating in the city by 2035.

Bristol: may be the first city to ban diesel vehicles from entering the city center.

Hong Kong: plans to phase out all gasoline and diesel vehicles by 2030 or 2040.

FROM: coltura.org/world-gasoline-phaseout


France is a great example of a national government that incentivizes EV sales; and incentivizes EVs and efficient vehicles with lower emissions. Crit’Air in Paris is one of the largest pioneering programs in a major world city to mandate compliance with emission standards for vehicles (in this case, European emissions standards). After successful implementation in Paris, Crit’Air policies now cover about 28 permanent zones in France… FROM>>> Curbing Auto Emissions to Create Cleaner Air with Crit’Air


Please see this article on>>> the rise of EVs in Oslo, Norway. The share of fully electric vehicles on Oslo’s roads is over 15% (with hybrids included, the number is higher); and the majority new car sales in Oslo are hybrids, plug-in electric vehicles (EVs), or 100% EVs. Over half of new car sales are EVs; and when hybrids are added in, internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles account for only 15% of new vehicle sales in Oslo.


California is the first state in the [US] to commit to [EV only sales by 2035], but could serve as a spark for other states to follow, given its size and historic leadership on regulatory issues. Seventeen countries including France, the U.K. and Germany have adopted goals to phase out internal combustion passenger cars.   FROM:  wsj.com/california-to-ban-sales-of-new-gas-powered-cars-starting-in-2035


Develop electric vehicle infrastructure

What will be done to develop electric vehicle infrastructure that will be required on the road as early as 2030 in some countries and cities? There are many questions to be considered when the EV is required to be more present on city roads, even if it is simply within a certain length of city limits. With cars that will only run on electrical energy, there must be significantly additional EV charging stations developed in world cities.

EV charging stations must be developed to be ubiquitous in some cities, and plentiful in most vehicle-heavy cities worldwide. When ICE phase-out laws begin to be implemented in world cities, there will be a much greater need to have gas stations updated and/or replaced. There is definitely a question of what that will take.

While this question exists, even common vehicle manufacturers, like GM, VW, and Toyota, are drastically increasing their production of EVs. One improvement that is expected to come with the requirement of EVs or hybrid vehicles, is lower lithium ion battery cost. While the high cost of this item has for about the last ten years has made some drivers reluctant to purchase the most popular hybrids, this will likely help improve motivation to follow these coming regulations.

There is the potential for the rebates on EVs to increase significantly as the time limit for the new driving requirement approaches. While it may also be a bit of a challenge to receive financing on these often-expensive cars, there will now most likely be incredibly larger rebates for consumers, helping to draw more drivers to the side of environmentally friendly driving.


Map FROM: coltura.org/world-gasoline-phaseouts

Austria seeks to to phase out registrations of new gas vehicles by 2027.

British Columbia: legislation passed to ban sales of new gasoline cars by 2040

Denmark: plans to ban gasoline vehicles by 2030, and hybrids by 2035; has called on the European Union to expressly permit member states to enact 2030 bans.

Egypt: working on plan to have only electric vehicles by 2040

France: plans to ban sales of gasoline vehicles by 2040

Germany: Bundesrat (upper house of legislature) passed resolution to only approve emission-free cars for use on the roads by 2030.

Iceland: plans to ban registration of new fossil fuel vehicles starting 2030; Reykjavik is eliminating half its gas stations by 2025.

India: set a target of 100% electric vehicles by 2030, and is considering a ban on gas-powered 2- and 3-wheeled vehicles by 2025.

Ireland: legislation proposed to only allow sales of zero emissions vehicles starting 2030

Israel: plans to ban sales of new gasoline and diesel vehicles after 2030

Japan plans to ban sales of new gasoline-only vehicles by 2035.

Korea: contemplating banning sales of new gas vehicles by 2035

Netherlands: all new cars must be emissions-free by 2030; Amsterdam is banning all gasoline/diesel vehicles from its streets by 2030

Norway: The Norwegian Parliament has decided on a national goal that all new cars sold by 2025 should be zero-emission (electric or hydrogen).

Portugal: plans to stop selling new gasoline vehicles by 2040

Quebec: phasing out sales of new gas cars by 2035

Spain: plans to ban the sale of vehicles running on fossil fuels by 2040

Sweden: plans to ban sales of gasoline cars after 2030

UK: plans to ban sales of purely gasoline or diesel vehicles by 2030; Scotland: plans to phase out sales of new gasoline vehicles by 2032.

FROM: coltura.org/world-gasoline-phaseout


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